What is Arteriovenous Fistula

An arteriovenous fistula, or AVF, is an abnormal connection of vessels in the tissues around the brain or spinal cord. It happens when one or more arteries are directly connected to one or more veins or venous spaces called sinuses.

There are two major types of AVFs: dural AVFs and carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCFs). These are acquired lesions, which means that patients are not born with them, but instead develop them later in life. They can be a result of infection or traumatic injuries, but most develop without any specific cause.

Symptoms of Arteriovenous Fistula

Arteriovenous fistula signs and symptoms may include:

We provide minimally invasive techniques in order to reduce risk of Arteriovenous Fistula


Arteriovenous Fistula

Arteriovenous Fistula

Dural Arteriovenous Fistula (DAVF)

Dural Arteriovenous Fistula is an abnormal connection between arteries and veins located within the dura mater, the protective covering of the brain. Dr. Santosh specializes in treating DAVF using minimally invasive techniques such as endovascular embolization or surgical excision. These procedures aim to block the abnormal blood flow and restore normal circulation, thereby alleviating symptoms and preventing potential complications.
Arteriovenous Fistula

Caroticocavernous Fistula

Caroticocavernous Fistula is an abnormal communication between the carotid artery and the cavernous sinus, a venous structure within the skull. Dr. Santosh provides advanced treatments for CCF, including endovascular coiling or embolization. By occluding the abnormal connection, these procedures relieve symptoms such as eye redness, proptosis, and vision changes, while preserving neurological function and preventing further complications.

Frequently Asked Questions

Arteriovenous Fistula can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired due to trauma, surgery, or underlying conditions such as vascular malformations. Congenital AVFs may develop during fetal development, while acquired AVFs can result from injuries or medical procedures that disrupt normal blood vessel anatomy.

Symptoms of Arteriovenous Fistula can vary depending on the location and size of the abnormal connection. Common symptoms may include swelling, pain, warmth, pulsatile mass, or changes in skin color or temperature. In cases of cerebral AVFs, symptoms may include headaches, seizures, neurological deficits, or intracranial hemorrhage.

Diagnosing Arteriovenous Fistula typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation and imaging studies. Imaging modalities such as angiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), computed tomography angiography (CTA), or ultrasound may be used to visualize the abnormal blood flow and assess the location, size, and associated complications of the AVF.

Treatment options for Arteriovenous Fistula depend on various factors, including the location, size, symptoms, and overall health of the patient. Treatment may include minimally invasive procedures such as endovascular embolization, surgical excision, radiosurgery, or observation and monitoring. The choice of treatment is tailored to each patient’s specific needs and the characteristics of the AVF.

While Arteriovenous Fistulae can cause significant symptoms and complications, they are not always life-threatening. However, depending on the location and severity of the AVF, it can lead to serious complications such as hemorrhage, organ damage, or neurological deficits if left untreated. Early diagnosis and appropriate management are essential to prevent potential complications and improve outcomes.

The risk of recurrence of Arteriovenous Fistula after treatment depends on various factors, including the type of treatment, the size and location of the AVF, and individual patient factors. In some cases, particularly with large or complex AVFs, recurrence may occur despite successful initial treatment. Close monitoring and follow-up evaluations are important to detect any recurrence early and intervene as needed.

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